• Fiorella Camilleri

Ghanasori: The Unity in Diversity (Project 2017)

Cultural Heritage all over the World

Lecture at Shizuoka on the 8th February and maybe 10th February at Tokai University 2017 – 10:45am to 12:10pm

a) Introduction:

“Culture is who we are and what shapes our identity. No development can be sustainable without including culture”

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims,

“Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.”

“Caring for cultural heritage ensures this right and promotes societal wellbeing”.

1. What is the meaning of Cultural World Heritage?

Cultural Heritage is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions and values. Cultural Heritage is often expressed as either Intangible or Tangible Cultural Heritage (ICOMOS, 2002).As part of human activity Cultural Heritage produces tangible representations of the value systems, beliefs, traditions and lifestyles. Cultural Heritage can be distinguished in:

· Built Environment (Buildings, Townscapes, Archaeological remains)

· Natural Environment (Rural landscapes, Coasts and shorelines, Agricultural heritage)

· Artefacts (Books & Documents, Objects, Pictures).

Driving force behind all definitions of Cultural Heritage is: ‘it is a human creation intended to inform’ (John Feather, 2006).

Tangible & Intangible Heritage

Having at one time referred exclusively to the monumental remains of cultures, cultural heritage as a concept has gradually come to include new categories, partially owing to the instruments developed by UNESCO. Today, we find that heritage is not only manifested through tangible forms such as artefacts, buildings or landscapes but also through intangible forms. Intangible heritage includes voices, values, traditions, oral history. Popularly this is perceived through cuisine, clothing, forms of shelter, traditional skills and technologies, religious ceremonies, performing arts, storytelling. Today, we consider the tangible heritage inextricably bound up with the intangible heritage so the aim is to preserve both the tangible as well as the intangible heritage. An understanding of the intangible cultural heritage of different communities helps with intercultural dialogue, and encourages mutual respect for other ways of life.

The importance of Intangible Cultural Heritage is not the cultural manifestation itself but rather the wealth of knowledge and skills that is transmitted through it from one generation to the next. The social and economic value of this transmission of knowledge is relevant for minority groups and for mainstream social groups within a State, and is as important for developing States as for developed ones[1].

Intangible cultural heritage is:

· Traditional, contemporary and living at the same time: Intangible Cultural Heritage does not only represent inherited traditions from the past but also contemporary rural and urban practices in which diverse cultural groups take part;

· Inclusive: we may share expressions of Intangible Cultural Heritage that are similar to those practiced by others. Whether they are from the neighboring village, from a city on the opposite side of the world or have been adapted by peoples who have migrated and settled in a different region, they all are Intangible Cultural Heritage: they have been passed from one generation to another, have evolved in response to their environments and they contribute to giving us a sense of identity and continuity, providing a link from our past, through the present, and into our future. Intangible cultural heritage does not give rise to questions of whether or not certain practices are specific to a culture. It contributes to social cohesion, encouraging a sense of identity and responsibility which helps individuals to feel part of one or different communities and to feel part of society at large;


· Representative: Intangible Cultural Heritage is not merely valued as a cultural good, on a comparative basis, for its exclusivity or its exceptional value. It thrives on its basis in communities and depends on those whose knowledge of traditions, skills and customs are passed on to the rest of the community, from generation to generation, or to other communities;

· Community-based: Intangible Cultural Heritage can only be heritage when it is recognized as such by the communities, groups or individuals that create, maintain and transmit it – without their recognition, nobody else can decide for them that a given expression or practice is their heritage.

2. International Organizations for Cultural heritages

UNESCO is convinced that no development can be sustainable without a strong culture component. Indeed only a human-centred approach to development based on mutual respect and open dialogue among cultures can lead to lasting, inclusive and equitable results. Yet until recently, culture has been missing from the development equation.

To ensure that culture takes it rightful place in development strategies and processes, UNESCO has adopted a three-pronged approach: it spearheads worldwide advocacy for culture and development, while engaging with the international community to set clear policies and legal frameworks and working on the ground to support governments and local stakeholders to safeguard heritage, strengthen creative industries and encourage cultural pluralism.

UNESCO renowned cultural conventions provide a unique global platform for international cooperation and establish a holistic cultural governance system based on human rights and shared values. These international treaties endeavor to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage including ancient archaeological sites, intangible and underwater heritage, museum collections, oral traditions and other forms of heritage, and to support creativity, innovation and the emergence of dynamic cultural sectors

Three international non-governmental or intergovernmental organizations are named in the Convention to advise the Committee in its deliberations.

ICCROM: The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) is an intergovernmental body which provides expert advice on how to conserve listed properties, as well as training in restoration techniques. ICCROM was set up in 1956 and is located in Rome.

ICOMOS: The International Council on Monuments and Sites(ICOMOS) provides the World Heritage Committee with evaluations of cultural and mixed properties proposed for inscription on the World Heritage List. It is an international, non-governmental organization founded in 1965, with an international secretariat in Paris.

IUCN: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international, non-governmental organization that provides the World Heritage Committee with technical evaluations of natural heritage properties and, through its worldwide network of specialists, reports on the state of conservation of listed properties. With more than 1000 members, IUCN was established in 1948 and is located in Gland, Switzerland.


3. The importance of Cultural Heritage

It is sad but one recurrently has to explain why culture and especially cultural heritage is important, whether it be in a discussion with ambassadors, politicians or military commanders. Bertold Brecht, one of the first arguments used in this dispute is that people would be much better off with 'substantial' goods, like food and housing, than with some antiquities. Many great mind would disagree with Bertold Brecht who said 'Food comes first, than Morality'. They would instantly refer to the relation between heritage and freedom, and many people would give up their lives for this freedom. Culture and heritage are not just luxury goods, they are basic needs. (freedom fighters – terrorists)

UNESCO’s conventions in the field of culture were drafted and adopted following the request by Member States to develop international standards that could serve as a basis for drawing up national cultural policies and strengthen cooperation among them. The eight normative instruments created over a period of 55 years reflect the priorities of the international community in the field of culture at the time of their adoption. By comparing them, they also reflect the evolution of cultural policies and the role that different governmental and non-governmental actors play. They complement each other in so far as they deal with different subjects and provide a standard reference for national cultural policies. Moreover, newly adopted instruments enable us to better understand existing ones, since they reflect the impact of past policies and new needs. Taken together, they constitute a set of tools aimed at supporting Member States in their efforts to preserve the world’s cultural diversity in a constantly changing international environment. Their effectiveness is based on the commitment taken by Member States to implement them once ratified.

The General Conference of UNESCO adopted in 2003, at its 32nd session, the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. The adoption of the Convention became a milestone in the evolution of international policies for promoting cultural diversity, since for the first time the international community had recognized the need to support the kind of cultural manifestations and expressions that until then had not benefited from such a large legal and programmatic framework.

· Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development

The cultural heritage has been absent from the sustainable development debate despite its crucial importance to societies and the wide acknowledgment of its importance at national level. It has also been absent despite the wide ratification of the UNESCO Culture Conventions by the Organization’s Member States. Globalization, urbanization and climate change can threaten the cultural heritage and weaken cultural diversity. What measures are needed to promote the safeguarding of the cultural heritage in the global development agenda? What are the concrete actions that need to be taken in order to integrate cultural heritage conservation and promotion into the sustainable development debate?

· The Hangzhou Declaration entitled “Placing Culture at the Heart of Sustainable Development Policies” is the outcome document of the UNESCO International Congress, “Culture: Key to Sustainable Development” . The Congress was held in the city of Hangzhou (China) from 15 to 17 May 2013, with the generous support of the Government of the People’s Republic of China.

The Hangzhou International Congress underlined the role of culture in fostering sustainable development as an enabler and as a driver. The Congress aimed at providing state of the art knowledge, research, data and best practices on the contribution of culture to sustainable development, and at engaging the international community in an open debate, in view of the Post 2015 United Nations agenda. Through the contribution of eminent development experts, United Nations leaders, governmental decision makers, international and regional organizations, private sector and civil society key representatives, the Congress provided an historical opportunity to make a difference in the global sustainable development agenda Post 2015.

· In September 2015 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, with 17 ambitious, universal goals to transform our world.

UNESCO ensures that the role of culture is recognized through a majority of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including those focusing on quality education, sustainable cities, the environment, economic growth, sustainable consumption and production patterns, peaceful and inclusive societies, gender equality and food security.

From cultural heritage to cultural and creative industries, Culture is both an enabler and a driver of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development.

UNESCO's work promoting cultural diversity, and UNESCO’s Culture Conventions, are key to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The Heritage Cycle diagram gives us an idea how we can make the past part of our future (Simon Thurley, 2005). In a clockwise direction the wedges and arrows read:


i. Japan Funds in Trust UNESCO for Intangible Cultural Heritage

In 1993, following an agreement between UNESCO and the Japanese government, a special Funds-in-Trust was created aimed at assisting UNESCO in its actions in favour of intangible cultural heritage. Up to and including 2007, Japan’s total contribution to the Fund has amounted to approximately USD 12 millions. In particular, the Fund played an important role in the preparation of the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.

In accordance with the spirit of the Convention, the main focus of the Fund is currently given to activities, especially for developing countries and post-conflict countries, aimed at ensuring the viability of the intangible cultural heritage, including identification (inventories), transmission, particularly through formal and non-formal education, protection, promotion, enhancement, documentation and research. The Fund also contributes to awareness-raising about and capacity-building in ratification and implementation of the Convention, especially in the Pacific region.

The various projects supported by the Fund provide examples and lessons learnt of the development and implementation of safeguarding projects in the field of intangible cultural heritage. The following list presents, by region, the projects and meetings that were possible thanks to contributions of the Japan Funds-in-Trust.

EXAMPLE:

An Armenian oboe, the Duduk accompanies popular songs and dances and is played at social events such as weddings, anniversaries and funerals. The Armenian Duduk is distinctive in construction and performance technique and characterized by a warm and soft timbre.

The project aims to safeguard traditional duduk music in the difficult modern social, cultural and political context in Armenia. The main components of the project are: (i) training and transmission of skills and know-how; (ii) documentation and inventorying; and (iii) public awareness-raising. The planned activities include organizing master classes in a number of provincial schools, publishing a Practical manual for players, makers, and students of the duduk, compiling an Inventory of the Armenian Duduk Tradition and organizing open-air concerts. The project is intended to improve the context in which the main bearers of the tradition – the duduk players – evolve, and to give rise to a renewed interest in duduk music among the Armenian public.

b) Case Study: Introduction of the Research Project:

http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/state/malta-MT?info=mandates-and-participation

http://paragoneurope.eu/projects/attachments/The%20Living%20Heritage/AnEvaluationOfIntangibleCulturalHeritageInMalta.pdf

http://en.unesco.org/countries/Malta/information

Ghana

https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/149272/Maltese_Folk_and_Popular_Music_pages_54-58.pdf

Maltese Ghana is the generalized term for the indigenous Maltese singing, which consists of quatrains, ideally extemporized, following a rhyme scheme a b c b and send to traditional tunes, generally accompanied by a number of guitars.

Maltese Ghana singing has been with the Maltese nation for centuries, and has been regarded as the music of the peasant, the farmer, the laborer, the washer woman, and has been associated with the working class. (circa 1419)

Originally used to pass the time during hours of recreation or whilst completing household tasks, Għana was in the past mostly practiced by women singing on rooftops by conversing with each other using rhyming song.

The Maltese have a natural in built ability to sing and rhyme. And this was documented by a number of visitors to the islands who were impressed by this phenomenon.

A typical Maltese quatrain is the four line poem or stanza, with each strofa consisting mostly of eight syllables. Ghana verses are half oriental aires, something between a Sicilian ballad and the rhythmic wail o fan Arabic tune. There are various forms of Ghana:


1 Botta u Risposta: Nowadays this is the most popular type of Ghana. It is sung by two or more ghannejja as a song duel. The Ghannejja carry on an impromptu conversation, stanza for stanza with a guitar interlude between each stanza. This requires a quick thinking as well as the ability to rhyme. If four ghannejja are taking part, ghannej one sings with ghannej three and the ghannej two sings with ghannej four.


2 Ghana fil Gholi (known as La Bormliza: This type of Ghana is sung on a high note and the phrases are long.


3 Ghana tal Fatt: is usually melancholic. The ghannej recounts a tale of tragic events.


4 Makjetta: This type of Ghana is more like a song and is usually very lively.


Nasori in Bugaku of Amenomiya Jinja shrine in Morimachi town in Shizuoka.

Japan boasts a tradition of musical art called “gagaku,” which is sometimes referred to as the world’s oldest orchestra. Today, while the number of people who know gagaku and have actually listened to it is on the wane even among the Japanese, it is a form of Japanese traditional art which is designated as an important intangible cultural heritage and deserves great respect as such.

Gagaku is a traditional form of music which was introduced from China and Korea to Japan. It is one of Japan’s important intangible cultural assets and was registered as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2007. The music and dance introduced from Asian countries developed into an integrated form of Japanese musical art called Gagaku and has been handed down from around the 8th century (the Nara Period) to date. Gagaku can be classified into main three different categories; “Kuniburino Utamai,” “Tougaku and Komagaku,” and “Utaimono.”

Komagaku Bugaku Dance: Nasori The color of these outfits is referred to as “midori (green)” in gagaku.

Komagaku is a form of music which originated mainly from Goguryeo, Baekje, Shilla the Balhae Kingdon, the ancient kingdoms of the Korean Peninsula. It was only bugaku style komagaku which was introduced to Japan but recently some Japanese gagaku groups have been performing kangen (instrument only) style of komagaku too. One of the wind instruments, sho, is not used for komagaku, though. Hichiriki, komabue and the three kinds of drums mentioned above are used. The outfits of the dancers performing komagaku are always colored “midori (green)” as it is traditionally so called.


Nasori is also called Sōryū-no Mai (Dragon Pair Dance), a dance representing a male and a female dragon merrily disporting themselves. In olden days, it is said that this was performed to extol the victor in traditional games of Sumō wrestling or other competitions. The two dancers wear the ryōtō-shōzoku, a kind of fringed tunic with pantaloons, covering their faces with masks, and holding a baton in their right hand. They perform the ha (intermediate) and kyū (climax) movements of the music.


Mori-machi is a town with a population density of 18, 606, located in Shuchi district in Shizuoka prefecture. This town is known as a pilgrimage destination area since the Kamakura period (12th century).

Amenomiya Jinja shrine was founded in the 6th century. The Bugaku of Amenomiya Jinja and Oguni Jinja is said to have originated back in 705, performed by the Shinto priest Ayatari of Fujiwara, and the people from Kyoto as a dedication for their gods. This particular type of Bugaku was listed as an Important Intangible Cultural Folk Properties in 1982. The glimpse of ancient melodies of central Bugaku of Kyoto and Nara, is still heard and seen in the rural Bugaku of Amenomiya Jinja.

The idea behind Bugaku is that the physical world is universe of the principle of ying and yang, that is, the female and male, the moon and the sun, up and down, good and evil, and therefore Bugaku of Amenomiya consists of two pair of dancers Oguni Jinja on the left and Amenomiya Jinja on the right. Nasori (dance music of the right) of Amenomiya Jinja is brisk and lively and expresses the swirling of dragons. Its motions are vigorous and colossal. There is a significant similarity in folk tunes between central Bugaku of Kyoto and Nara (authentic Bugaku) and the Amenomiya one.

c) Conclusion:

Outcomes for preserving Cultural Heritage

1. The Unity of Diversity – The Otherness

‘Diversity without unity will bring confusion, whilst unity without diversity will bring Tyranny’.

Ernesto Teodoro Moneta first adopted the motto in ‘In Varietate Concordia’. This is the concept of Unity without uniformity and diversity without fragmentation’, i.e. understanding the differences that enriches human interactions.

This concept was used in non Western cultures such as indigenous people in North America and Taoist societies 400-500 BC.

This motto was adopted in the European Union (2000) – ‘Europeans are united in working together for peace and prosperity and that the many different cultures, traditions and languages in Europe are a positive asset for the continent’.


Refer to the UNESCO DECLARATION ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY 2 NOVEMBER 2 NOVEMBER 2001

“The cultural wealth of the world is its diversity in dialogue” The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity was adopted unanimously in a most unusual context. It came in the wake of the events of 11 September 2001, and the UNESCO General Conference, which was meeting for its 31st session, was the first ministerial-level meeting to be held after those terrible events. It was an opportunity for States to reaffirm their conviction that intercultural dialogue is the best guarantee of peace and to reject outright the theory of the inevitable clash of cultures and civilizations. Such a wide-ranging instrument is a first for the international community. It raises cultural diversity to the level of “the common heritage of humanity”, “as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature” and makes its defense an ethical imperative indissociably from respect for the dignity of the individual. The Declaration aims both to preserve cultural diversity as a living, and thus renewable treasure that must not be perceived as being unchanging heritage but as a process guaranteeing the survival of humanity; and to prevent segregation and fundamentalism which, in the name of cultural differences, would sanctify those differences and so counter the message of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Universal Declaration makes it clear that each individual must acknowledge not only otherness in all its forms but also the plurality of his or her own identity, within societies that are themselves plural. Only in this way can cultural diversity be preserved as an adaptive process and as a capacity for expression, creation and innovation. The debate between those countries which would like to defend cultural goods and services “which, as vectors of identity, values and meaning, must not be treated as mere commodities or consumer goods”, and those which would hope to promote cultural rights has thus been surpassed, with the two approaches brought together by the Declaration, which has highlighted the causal link uniting two complementary attitudes. One cannot exist without the other.

The Declaration, accompanied by the main lines of an action plan, can be an outstanding tool for development, capable of humanizing globalization. Of course, it lays down not instructions but general guidelines to be turned into ground-breaking policies by Member States in their specific contexts, in partnership with the private sector and civil society. This Declaration, which sets against inward-looking fundamentalism the prospect of a more open, creative and democratic world, is now one of the founding texts of the new ethics promoted by UNESCO in the early twenty-first century. My hope is that one day it may acquire the same force as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Koïchiro Matsuura Director-General – Japanese Diplomat former Director General of UNESCO.

2. Lateral Thinking in performing arts

v Lateral thinking builds on improvisational theatre and meditative techniques in pursuit of the intuitive sensibility. It emphasizes a process of learning to think differently by thinking about something else entirely, or thinking in a different way. Specifically, lateral thinking would suggest that instead of relying on words and language, visualize the matter in question and think in pictures. Try to escape the constraints of how the problem at hand has previously been described and think of the images and metaphors that impressionistically come to mind. Thinking laterally about topics that may not appear to have any immediate relevance to the issue can allow for unexpected connections and different thinking frames to emerge. ( Bono, 1971 ; Benjamin, R.D, 2005).

v Question/Problem?

How can we preserve Maltese Ghana and Japanese Nasori in a globalized world?

1. List the assumptions

· Enhancing popularity/interest of folk music appreciation among the locals

· Enhancing popularity/interest pf folk music among the foreigners

· National interest and sustainable development

· Dissemination of culture i.e. cultural diplomacy

2. Verbalize the Convention

· How would a typical person answers this question? What if I cannot go this route?

3. Question the Question

· What If I could rewrite the question? – How important is the Intangible World Heritage to a country? Can Cultural diplomacy bring revenue to the country? How can I make Malta ranking part of the Soft power 30? – promoting its Intangible and Tangible Cultural Heritages? How can we use digital media to preserve the Intangible Cultural Heritage? – i.e. VR and Culture – mobile applications ect.

4. Start Backwards

· Start with the solution first – music transcriptions, recording on site of the music transcriptions and disseminate the music.

5. Change the Perspective

· Involve people from different fields and areas to give fresh perspectives to the ideas (convention – ignorant)

· In this project: Birdseye view of Malta from a 7 year old, who will take pictures of the things which he likes and dislikes about Malta.These pictures will be transformed to text, which will speak about social issues – Ghana texts depict daily living (folklore) – so is Nasori. The dancer will transform images, texts and music to physical movements. The music will be the soul/essence of the pictures, text and movements.

Solution to the question is found through various alternatives – Lateral Thinking.

3. Cultural Diplomacy as a Soft Power in IR

· According to the American scholar Milton Cummings, it can be defined as the exchange of ideas, information, art and other aspects of culture among nations and their people in order to foster mutual understanding – 2003.

· Crucial role in building International Relations among states in contemporary I.R. as it might serve as an effective instrument in supporting national foreign policy objectives thus a constructive channel at times in political difficulty.

Example – 2005, London Royal Academy of Arts collaborated with the Palace Museum in Beijing to open an exhibition in China: The Three Emperors 1662-1795 which not only provided an appropriate setting for the visit of the Chinese President, Hu Jintaoto open the exhibition alongside the Queen 2005.

· It is argued that culture keeps doors opening difficult times, as there are a number of cases where cultural diplomacy provides a safe and constructive forum for relationship building or easing relations when they are stained.

Soft power vs hard power

Soft power is a term that was coined by the political scientist Joseph Nye in 1990 to describe the ability of one country to shape the preferences of another, and to do so through attraction and influence, rather than coercion. The concept emerged within the context of the Cold War, during which American art and culture (such as jazz and the avant-garde Abstract Expressionism movement) was funded and exported across the world for global consumption, promoting the values of intellectual freedom and, more broadly, liberal modern democracy, through self-expression and creativity. This was the antithesis of the alternative offered by the communist Soviet Union. Cultural products have continued to be produced in vast quantities and marketed aggressively to the rest of the world.


Over all ranking 2016: Soft Power 30

United States

77.96

United Kingdom

75.97

Germany

72.60

Canada

72.53

France

72.14

Australia

69.29

Japan : upward mover in soft power.

Strengths:

Aside from Japan’s well-recognized economic competitiveness, its cultural exports are one of its main strengths. Japan hosted 13 million visitors in last year. Japan also has a hugely popular music industry (J-Pop), which is appreciated throughout Asia. Its culture is so effectively exported globally that the government itself puts little effort into cultural promotion.

Weaknesses:

Where Japan’s soft power falls short is in its relations with neighboring countries China and South Korea, both of which scored Japan very low in our international polling. Japan would do well to take a leaf out of Germany’s book in its approach to strengthening regional relations.


Weakness: refugees, terrorism, divisions in the political governance, corruption and unemployment doesn’t attract foreign investment, little attempt to engage with the rest of the world through social media, income inequality, Brexit, small diplomatic network, public finances.

n Strengths: cultural investment on the local industries and resources and digital media.

Many countries aim to advance and extend their Cultural Institutions abroad as part of their diplomatic strategies. India, for example is setting up its council for cultural relations in Washington and Paris alongside the 18 existing offices as strategic project pf the country’s growing power on the Global stage.


Cultural Diplomacy is an important aspect of foreign policy, which contributes effectively to the dynamic integration and relationship building among states and the culture. It involves listening to the World to its hum, to how it is, to how it is changing and in this new World, making a Maltese and the Japanese voice heard, in their literature and performing arts.

If one wants to have greater influence, one needs two things:


1 To love oneself

2 To strive, to understand and love others, which is not easy. A country’s politics is not important, what is important is the basic attitude that is has towards the World.

3 Culture is not only entertainment but its is an an economic asset.

4 National Interest and Humanism.


The growth of consultancy, another means by which western museums can enjoy their dominance and boost their income. According to The Economist, the British Museum charges £10 million a year to provide consultancy services to the Zayed National Museum in Abu Dhabi (Rocco 2013). In another example, we can see how museums franchise their names and brands for financial profit. The Louvre has charged $525 million to attach its name to a new museum in Abu Dhabi. According to scholar Btihaj Ajana, this is a “strong attestation as to how ‘big name’ institutions are increasingly mobilizing the power of their cultural brands and reputation for financial gain” (2015:328). This amounts to unabashed profiteering that is only possible due to deeply entrenched power structures. This is the reason why the terms soft power and cultural diplomacy are associated with cultural imperialism and propaganda.

Expressing people’s identity through folk music in classical music transcriptions and compositions:

Ethnomusicologists believe that the study of the music of all the world people’s is a path to understanding human beings: i.e. all music in its fully geographical and historical context. They assume that whenever and wherever humans make and listen to music with the keen deviation and attention that they do, then something important and worthy of study is going on. British Ethnomusicologist John Blacking stated that ‘It is necessary to explain why, under certain circumstances, a simple folk song may have more human value than a complex symphony’








Comments by students of University of Shizuoka, 8th February 2017

How cultural heritages are handed down? I really felt it’s impossible to do so in a passive manner, and they’ll be disappeared. Soft power, which is rewarded with good results, is much important than political diplomacy, and soft power is required in this world at this moment. I think it’s important to try to think out how different cultures are combined. Unity in diversity, it’ll be fantastic if music not only stays music but also becomes opportunity to enhance mutual understanding among different ones. I believe in power of arts and that’s possible. [2nd year undergraduate]

Music which is performed today seemed different by countries. I really felt the concept of ‘ma’ in the piece of syomyo by Charles Camilleri. [1st year undergraduate]

It was the first time to listen to duo of the guitar and flute. Sound of the guitar was very vigorous. I was surprised at various timbre of the guitar solo. It was amazing that impression of sound of both flute and the guitar changed by each pieces like brightness and darkness. It was very precious opportunity. [1st year undergraduate student]

Heritage cycle, the flow of understanding, valuing, caring and enjoying, was very interesting. I found difference among music. Knowing backgrounds beyond music, I enjoyed listening to music with imagination. I was excited by duo’s expression of music, not only sound but also movement of their bodies. [1st year undergraduate]

It was very interesting and precious opportunity to me. Thoughts were put into pieces of music I listened to today, and they appeared as timbre. I really felt the vastness of expression of music. I also thought passing these pieces to generations will connect to heritage preservation. I could recognise music is one of means of introduction of culture. I felt a piece which indicates transition of music like ‘Histoire du Tango’ also implies transition of societies at these times. [1st year undergraduate]

Timbre of the guitar was dauntless but also sensitive and heart-warming. When sound of flute and the guitar were mixed, it made me as if I were a protagonist in a story. If flute described movement of a protagonist in a story and the guitar did emotions and landscapes, it was tapestry of different stories. [2nd year undergraduate]

When I hear a word ‘world heritage,’ I instantly come up with something visible like architects and nature, but I felt it was wonderful both tangible and intangible heritages remain and were handed down as culture. Today, I felt the grandeur of inheritance of intangible heritage because it might disappear if someone wouldn’t pass culture to someone. I was very moved that the existence of various cultural characteristic of music and that much better things have been created by culture melting from the ancient era. Honestly I hadn’t been interested in appreciation of music, but I started thinking to learn history behind music and to listen to music actively. [2nd year undergraduate]


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